Page Dedicatory

	When I began to put together information about the
documents and history related to the founding of our
Nation I was filled with amazement concerning how
little people knew about the fundamental facts. As I
continued on I discovered how little I knew about
these things. I began thinking that the education of
generations following mine was severely lacking, I
came to understand how much had been left out of my
own. And, even though I am a graduate of military
leadership schools including the USAF NCO Academy
program, my knowledge of our country is still not what
it should be. I am ashamed that I have lived so long
and know so little.
	The words of the Declaration of Independence are
largely unknown, and many do not even know the
Articles of Confederation even exist. Why is this? I
am a conspiracy theorist in this matter. I believe
there has been a plan in action for several
generations to make people ignorant of their own
heritage so they will be more willing to surrender it
to become world citizens and part of a New World
Order. I am convinced that the more people know the
less willing they are to cooperate with the forces
that press for a world system for the predicted one
world ruler called the Antichrist.
	I believe the United States was brought into being by
Almighty God as part of His eternal plan. A great
majority of those who played pivotal roles in the
founding and development of this country also believed
“the unseen hand of deity” moved in the affairs of men
to bring these things to pass. It is to these men, so
many forgotten by the very people who owe them the
most that this booklet is dedicated.

The Declaration of Independence

In CONGRESS, July 4, 1776 

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united
States of America, 

When in the Course of human events, it becomes
necessary for one people to dissolve the political
bands which have connected them with another, and to
assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and
equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of
Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the
opinions of mankind requires that they should declare
the causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men
are created equal, that they are endowed by their
Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among
these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
–That to secure these rights, Governments are
instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from
the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form
of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is
the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and
to institute new Government, laying its foundation on
such principles and organizing its powers in such
form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect
their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will
dictate that Governments long established should not
be changed for light and transient causes; and
accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind
are more disposed to suffer, while evils are
sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the
forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long
train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably
the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under
absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their
duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new
Guards for their future security. -Such has been the
patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now
the necessity which constrains them to alter their
former Systems of Government. The history of the
present King of Great Britain [George III] is a
history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all
having in direct object the establishment of an
absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let
Facts be submitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome
and necessary for the public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of
immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in
their operation till his Assent should be obtained;
and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to
attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the
accommodation of large districts of people, unless
those people would relinquish the right of
Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable
to them and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places
unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the
depository of their public Records, for the sole
purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for
opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the
rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such
dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby
the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation,
have returned to the People at large for their
exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed
to all the dangers of invasion from without, and
convulsions within. 

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these
States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for
Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others
to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the
conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by
refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for
the tenure of their offices, and the amount and
payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent
hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and
eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing
Armies without the consent of our legislatures. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of
and superior to the Civil power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a
jurisdiction foreign to our constitution and
unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their
Acts of pretended Legislation: 

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment
for any Murders which they should commit on the
Inhabitants of these States: 

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of
Trial by Jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for
pretended offences: 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a
neighbouring Province, establishing therein an
Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so
as to render it at once an example and fit instrument
for introducing the same absolute rule into these

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most
valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of
our Governments: 
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring
themselves invested with power to legislate for us in
all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out
of his Protection and waging War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt
our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large Armies of
foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death,
desolation and tyranny, already begun with
circumstances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely
paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally
unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive
on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country,
to become the executioners of their friends and
Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and
has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our
frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known
rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of
all ages, sexes and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned
for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated
Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury.
A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act
which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of
a free people. 

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British
brethren. We have warned them from time to time of
attempts by their legislature to extend an
unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded
them of the circumstances of our emigration and
settlement here. We have appealed to their native
justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by
the ties of our common kindred to disavow these
usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our
connections and correspondence. They too have been
deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We
must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which
denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold
the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united
States of America, in General Congress, Assembled,
appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the
rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by
the Authority of the good People of these Colonies,
solemnly publish and declare, That these United
Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and
Independent States; that they are Absolved from all
Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all
political connection between them and the State of
Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved;
and that as Free and Independent States, they have
full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract
Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other
Acts and Things which Independent States may of right
do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a
firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence,
we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our
Fortunes and our sacred Honor. 

Delaware   	• George Read	• Caesar Rodney
	• Thomas McKean	
Pennsylvania   	• George Clymer	• Benjamin Franklin
	• Robert Morris	• John Morton
	• Benjamin Rush	• George Ross
	• James Smith	• James Wilson
	• George Taylor	
Massachusetts   	• John Adams	• Samuel Adams
	• John Hancock	• Robert Treat Paine
	• Elbridge Gerry	
New Hampshire   	• Joshiah Bartlett	• Wiliam Whipple
	• Matthew Thornton	
Rhode Island   	• Stephen Hopkins	• William Ellery
New York   	• Lewis Morris	• Philip Livingston
	• Francis Lewis	• William Floyd
Georgia   	• Button Gwinnett	• Lyman Hall
	• George Walton	
Virginia   	• Richard Henry Lee	• Francis Lightfoot
	• Carter Braxton	• Benjamin Harrison
	• Thomas Jefferson	• George Wythe
	• Thomas Nelson, Jr.	
North Carolina   	• William Hooper	• John Penn
	• Joseph Hewes	
South Carolina   	• Edward Rutledge	• Arthur Middleton
	• Thomas Lynch, Jr.	• Thomas Heyward, Jr.
New Jersey   	• Abraham Clark	• John Hart
	• Francis Hopkinson	• Richard Stockton
	• John Witherspoon	
Connecticut   	• Samuel Huntington	• Roger Sherman
	• William Williams	• Oliver Wolcott
Maryland   	• Charles Carroll	• Samuel Chase
	• Thomas Stone	• William Paca

The Articles of Confederation

To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the
undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our
Names send greeting. 

Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between
the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay Rhode
Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.
I The Stile of this Confederacy shall be "The United
States of America". 

II Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and
independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and
right, which is not by this Confederation expressly
delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.

III The said States hereby severally enter into a firm
league of friendship with each other, for their common
defense, the security of their liberties, and their
mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to
assist each other, against all force offered to, or
attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of
religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense

IV The better to secure and perpetuate mutual
friendship and intercourse among the people of the
different States in this Union, the free inhabitants
of each of these States, paupers, vagabonds, and
fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to
all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the
several States; and the people of each State shall
free ingress and regress to and from any other State,
and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade
and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions,
and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof
respectively, provided that such restrictions shall
not extend so far as to prevent the removal of
property imported into any State, to any other State,
of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also
that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be
laid by any State, on the property of the United
States, or either of them. 

If any person guilty of, or charged with, treason,
felony, or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall
flee from justice, and be found in any of the United
States, he shall, upon demand of the Governor or
executive power of the State from which he fled, be
delivered up and removed to the State having
jurisdiction of his ofa meeting of the States, and
while they act as members of the committee of the

In determining questions in the United States in
Congress assembled, each State shall have one vote. 

Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be
impeached or questioned in any court or place out of
Congress, and the members of Congress shall be
protected in their persons from arrests or
imprisonments, during the time of their going to and
from, and attendence on Congress, except for treason,
felony, or breach of the peace. 

VI No State, without the consent of the United States
in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or
receive any embassy from, or enter into any
conference, agreement, alliance or treaty with any
King, Prince or State; nor shall any person holding
any office of profit or trust under the United States,
or any of them, accept any present, emolument, office
or title of any kind whatever from any King, Prince or
foreign State; nor shall the United States in Congress
assembled, or any of them, grant any title of

No two or more States shall enter into any treaty,
confederation or alliance whatever between them,
without the consent of the United States in Congress
assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for
which the same is to be entered into, and how long it
shall continue. 

No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may
interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered
into by the United States in Congress assembled, with
any King, Prince or State, in pursuance of any
treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts
of France and Spain. 

No vessel of war shall be kept up in time of peace by
any State, except such number only, as shall be deemed
necessary by the United States in Congress assembled,
for the defense of such State, or its trade; nor shall
any body of forces be kept up by any State in time of
peace, except such number only, as in the judgement of
the United States in Congress assembled, shall be
deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for
the defense of such State; but every State shall
always keep up a well-regulated and disciplined
militia, sufficiently armed and accoutered, and shall
provide and constantly have ready for use, in public
stores, a due number of filed pieces and tents, and a
proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp equipage.

No State shall engage in any war without the consent
of the United States in Congress assembled, unless
such State be actually invaded by enemies, or shall
have received certain advice of a resolution being
formed by some nation of Indians to invade such State,
and the danger is so imminent as not to admit of a
delay till the United States in Congress assembled can
be consulted; nor shall any State grant commissions to
any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or
reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by
the United States in Congress assembled, and then only
against the Kingdom or State and the subjects thereof,
against which war has been so declared, and under such
regulations as shall be established by the United
States in Congress assembled, unless such State be
infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may
be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as
the danger shall continue, or until the United States
in Congress assembled shall determine otherwise.
VII When land forces are raised by any State for the
common defense, all officers of or under the rank of
colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each
State respectively, by whom such forces shall be
raised, or in such manner as such State shall direct,
and all vacancies shall be filled up by the State
which first made the appointment. 

VIII All charges of war, and all other expenses that
shall be incurred for the common defense or general
welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress
assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury,
which shall be supplied by the several States in
proportion to the value of all land within each State,
granted or surveyed for any person, as such land and
the buildings and improvements thereon shall be
estimated according to such mode as the United States
in Congress assembled, shall from time to time direct
and appoint. The taxes for paying that proportion
shall be laid and levied by the authority and
direction of the legislatures of the several States
within the time agreed upon by the United States in
Congress assembled.
IX The United States in Congress assembled, shall have
the sole and exclusive right and power of determining
on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the
sixth article -- of sending and receiving ambassadors
-- entering into treaties and alliances, provided that
no treaty of commerce shall be made whereby the
legislative power of the respective States shall be
restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on
foreigners, as their own people are subjected to, or
from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any
species of goods or commodities whatsoever -- of
establishing rules for deciding in all cases, what
captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what
manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the
service of the United States shall be divided or
appropriated -- of granting letters of marque and
reprisal in times of peace -- appointing courts for
the trial of piracies and felonies commited on the
high seas and establishing courts for receiving and
determining finally appeals in all cases of captures,
provided that no member of Congress shall be appointed
a judge of any of the said courts. 

The United States in Congress assembled shall also be
the last resort on appeal in all disputes and
differences now subsisting or that hereafter may arise
between two or more States concerning boundary,
jurisdiction or any other causes whatever; which
authority shall always be exercised in the manner
following. Whenever the legislative or executive
authority or lawful agent of any State in controversy
with another shall present a petition to Congress
stating the matter in question and praying for a
hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of
Congress to the legislative or executive authority of
the other State in controversy, and a day assigned for
the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents,
who shall then be directed to appoint by joint
consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court
for hearing and determining the matter in question:
but if they cannot agree, Congress shall name three
persons out of each of the United States, and from the
list of such persons each party shall alternately
strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the
number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that
number not less than seven, nor more than nine names
as Congress shall direct, shall in the presence of
Congress be drawn out by lot, and the persons whose
names shall be so drawn or any five of them, shall be
commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine
the controversy, so always as a major part of the
judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the
determination: and if either party shall neglect to
attend at the day appointed, without showing reasons,
which Congress shall judge sufficient, or being
present shall refuse to strike, the Congress shall
proceed to nominate three persons out of each State,
and the secretary of Congress shall strike in behalf
of such party absent or refusing; and the judgement
and sentence of the court to be appointed, in the
manner before prescribed, shall be final and
conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to
submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or
defend their claim or cause, the court shall
nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence, or
judgement, which shall in like manner be final and
decisive, the judgement or sentence and other
proceedings being in either case transmitted to
Congress, and lodged among the acts of Congress for
the security of the parties concerned: provided that
every commissioner, before he sits in judgement, shall
take an oath to be administered by one of the judges
of the supreme or superior court of the State, where
the cause shall be tried, 'well and truly to hear and
determine the matter in question, according to the
best of his judgement, without favor, affection or
hope of reward': provided also, that no State shall be
deprived of territory for the benefit of the United

All controversies concerning the private right of soil
claimed under different grants of two or more States,
whose jurisdictions as they may respect such lands,
and the States which passed such grants are adjusted,
the said grants or either of them being at the same
time claimed to have originated antecedent to such
settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the petition of
either party to the Congress of the United States, be
finally determined as near as may be in the same
manner as is before presecribed for deciding disputes
respecting territorial jurisdiction between different

The United States in Congress assembled shall also
have the sole and exclusive right and power of
regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their
own authority, or by that of the respective States --
fixing the standards of weights and measures
throughout the United States -- regulating the trade
and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members
of any of the States, provided that the legislative
right of any State within its own limits be not
infringed or violated -- establishing or regulating
post offices from one State to another, throughout all
the United States, and exacting such postage on the
papers passing through the same as may be requisite to
defray the expenses of the said office -- appointing
all officers of the land forces, in the service of the
United States, excepting regimental officers --
appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and
commissioning all officers whatever in the service of
the United States --making rules for the government
and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and
directing their operations. The United States in
Congress assembled shall have authority to appoint a
committee, to sit in the recess of Congress, to be
denominated 'A Committee of the States', and to
consist of one delegate from each State; and to
appoint such other committees and civil officers as
may be necessary for managing the general affairs of
the United States under their direction -- to appoint
one of their members to preside, provided that no
person be allowed to serve in the office of president
more than one year in any term of three years; to
ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for
the service of the United States, and to appropriate
and apply the same for defraying the public expenses
--to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the
United States, transmitting every half-year to the
respective States an account of the sums of money so
borrowed or emitted -- to build and equip a navy -- to
agree upon the number of land forces, and to make
requisitions from each State for its quota, in
proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such
State; which requisition shall be binding, and
thereupon the legislature of each State shall appoint
the regimental officers, raise the men and cloath, arm
and equip them in a solid-like manner, at the expense
of the United States; and the officers and men so
cloathed, armed and equipped shall march to the place
appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United
States in Congress assembled. But if the United States
in Congress assembled shall, on consideration of
circumstances judge proper that any State should not
raise men, or should raise a smaller number of men
than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be
raised, officered, cloathed, armed and equipped in the
same manner as the quota of each State, unless the
legislature of such State shall judge that such extra
number cannot be safely spread out in the same, in
which case they shall raise, officer, cloath, arm and
equip as many of such extra number as they judeg can
be safely spared. And the officers and men so
cloathed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the
place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the
United States in Congress assembled. 

The United States in Congress assembled shall never
engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque or
reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties
or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value
thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary
for the defense and welfare of the United States, or
any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the
credit of the United States, nor appropriate money,
nor agree upon the number of vessels of war, to be
built or purchased, or the number of land or sea
forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief
of the army or navy, unless nine States assent to the
same: nor shall a question on any other point, except
for adjourning from day to day be determined, unless
by the votes of the majority of the United States in
Congress assembled. The Congress of the United States
shall have power to adjourn to any time within the
year, and to any place within the United States, so
that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration
than the space of six months, and shall publish the
journal of their proceedings monthly, except such
parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or
military operations, as in their judgement require
secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of
each State on any question shall be entered on the
journal, when it is desired by any delegates of a
State, or any of them, at his or their request shall
be furnished with a transcript of the said journal,
except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before
the legislatures of the several States. 

X The Committee of the States, or any nine of them,
shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of
Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United
States in Congress assembled, by the consent of the
nine States, shall from time to time think expedient
to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated
to the said Committee, for the exercise of which, by
the Articles of Confederation, the voice of nine
States in the Congress of the United States assembled
be requisite. 

XI Canada acceding to this confederation, and
adjoining in the measures of the United States, shall
be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages
of this Union; but no other colony shall be admitted
into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by
nine States. 

XII All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed, and
debts contracted by, or under the authority of
Congress, before the assembling of the United States,
in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be
deemed and considered as a charge against the United
States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said
United States, and the public faith are hereby
solemnly pleged. 

XIII Every State shall abide by the determination of
the United States in Congress assembled, on all
questions which by this confederation are submitted to
them. And the Articles of this Confederation shall be
inviolably observed by every State, and the Union
shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any
time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such
alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United
States, and be afterwards confirmed by the
legislatures of every State. 

And Whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the
World to incline the hearts of the legislatures we
respectively represent in Congress, to approve of, and
to authorize us to ratify the said Articles of
Confederation and perpetual Union. Know Ye that we the
undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and
authority to us given for that purpose, do by these
presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective
constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm
each and every of the said Articles of Confederation
and perpetual Union, and all and singular the matters
and things therein contained: And we do further
solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective
constituents, that they shall abide by the
determinations of the United States in Congress
assembled, on all questions, which by the said
Confederation are submitted to them. And that the
Articles thereof shall be inviolably obsfense. Full
faith and credit shall be given in each of these
States to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings
of the courts and magistrates of every other State. 

V For the most convenient management of the general
interests of the United States, delegates shall be
annually appointed in such manner as the legislatures
of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the
first Monday in November, in every year, with a power
reserved to each State to recall its delegates, or any
of them, at any time within the year, and to send
others in their stead for the remainder of the year. 

No State shall be represented in Congress by less than
two, nor more than seven members; and no person shall
be capable of being a delegate for more than three
years in any term of six years; nor shall any person,
being a delegate, be capable of holding any office
under the United States, for which he, or another for
his benefit, receives any salary, fees or emolument of
any kind. 

Each State shall maintain its own delegates in erved
by the States we respectively represent, and that the
Union shall be perpetual. 

In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in
Congress. Done at Philadelphia in the State of
Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the Year of our
Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-Eight, and
in the Third Year of the independence of America. 
Agreed to by Congress 
15 November 1777 
In force after ratification by Maryland, 1 March 1781

John Hanson

The Articles of Confederation DID provide for the
office of President even though his powers would not
be at the level of those who have served under the
Constitution. The Articles of Confederation stated
that the " ... United States in Congress assembled
shall have authority to .... appoint one of their
members to preside, provided that no person be allowed
to serve in the office of president more than one year
in any term of three years ...."*
 There were eight men elected for that one year term
under the conditions set by the Articles of
Confederation and John Hanson was the first in 1781.
His exact title was the "President of the United
States in Congress Assembled (not bad considering that
the United States Senate in debating what to call the
President under the Constitution considered "His
Highness the President of the United States of America
and Protector of their Liberties!")
 George Washington even acknowledged Hansonβs position
of prominence in a letter to him stating that : " I
congratulate your excellency on your appointment to
fill the most important seat in the United States." 
John Hanson was of Swedish ancestry and his ancestors
came to the "New World" in 1642 as emissaries of Queen
Christina. He was born in Mulberry Grove, Maryland in
1721. He served in the Maryland House of Delegates
from 1757 until 1773 before finally being elected to
the Continental Congress in 1780. During his political
career he was an early supporter of independence for
the colonies and patriotic principles. He was
instrumental in convincing the Maryland (his home
state) legislature to finally approve the Articles of
Confederation on March 1, 1781. 
Hanson was followed in the office by Richard Henry
Lee, Elias Boudinot, Thomas Mifflin, John Hancock,
Nathaniel Gorham, Arthur St. Clair, and Cyrus Griffin.
The Articles of Confederation did no specifically
"define" the powers of the President, and so under
John Hansonβs leadership he began to form various
departments of the government. He alone had the
authority to correspond and negotiate with foreign
governments. During Hanson’s one year in office, he
approved the Great Seal of the United States that is
still used today, gave orders to the military forces
toward the end of the American Revolution, officially
"received" General George Washington after the
American victory at Yorktown, helped establish the
first U.S.Treasury Department, the first Secretary of
War, and the first Foreign Affairs Department. He led
the fight to guarantee the statehood of the western
territories beyond the Appalachian Mountains that had
been controlled by some of the original thirteen
colonies. There are even claims that he unofficially
set aside the last Thursday in November as
Comparing the "powers" that Hanson had as President
under the Articles of Confederation to the "powers"
that Presidents have had under the Constitution would
be unfair. However, the Articles of Confederation was
our first constitution, and John Hanson was the first
to hold the highest office in the land at the time . 
A rare biography of John Hanson entitled John Hanson:
Our First President was written in 1932 by Seymour
Wemyss. The author stated that "on his (Hanson’s)
shoulders rested the difficult task of falling the
timbers and hewing them into shape for use in the
immediate erection of the national structure. He can
well be compared to a Caesar, an Alexander, a
Washington or a Lincoln when it comes to measure his
power of leadership, or when it comes to count the
steps taken to perfect a workable government."
 In 1981 the United States Postal Service issued a
stamp commemorating the 200th anniversary of the
appointment of Hanson as President of the United
States Assembled. 
To forget the eight men who held that office of
President prior to George Washington would be to
forget the years between the end of the American
Revolution and the ratification of the Constitution.
These were difficult and critical years for the young
nation that called for bold leadership. 
John Hanson was the first to take on that incredible
responsibility! He served his one year term in office
faithfully before retiring from public service. Upon
his death on November 21, 1783, the following eulogy
appeared in the Maryland Gazette: "Thus was ended the
career of one of America's greatest statesmen. While
hitherto practically unknown to our people, and this
is true as to nearly all the generations that have
lived since his day, his great handiwork, the nation
which he helped to establish, remains as a fitting
tribute to his memory. It is doubtful if there has
ever lived on this side of the Atlantic, a nobler
character or shrewder statesman. One would search in
vain to find a more powerful personage, or a more
aggressive leader, in the annals of American history.
and it is extremely doubtful if there has ever lived
in an age since the advent of civilization, a man with
a keener grasp of, or a deeper insight into, such
democratic ideals as are essential to the promotion of
personal liberty and the extension of human happiness.
He was firm in his opinion that the people of America
were capable of ruling themselves without the aid of a

*George Washington was elected president under the
Constitution when only 25% of the male population
could vote. In effect, the framers of the Constitution
never intended for the "people" to elect the
president. The feeling was that in each presidential
election, the states would choose a "favorite son"
candidate and no candidate would ever receive the
necessary majority in the Electoral College to win the
election. In that case the House of Representatives
would choose the president from the top three
candidates. The elections of Thomas Jefferson in 1800
(due to an electoral "tie" with Aaron Burr) and John
Quincy Adams in 1824 (due to a lack of a majority of
the electoral votes by the candidates) were both
"elected" by the House of Representatives. When
devising the electoral "scheme" during the
Constitutional Convention, there were no political

Jonsquill Ministries

P.O. Box 752
Buchanan, Georgia 30113

Internet Website
Get the Daily Thought via E-mail

Churches may duplicate freely for teaching purposes.



Jonsquill Ministries

P. O. Box 752

Buchanan, Georgia 30113